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Ancient roman leaders in chronological order and in alphabetical order:
| augustus | rome julius caesar | The 12 Caesars | caligula | Emperor Claudius | Emperor Constantine | Rome Five Good Emperors | Hadrian | Emperor Justinian | ancient roman Kings | marius | Emperor Nero | sulla | king tarquin | Emperor Tiberius | Roman Emperor Trajan | Emperor Vespasian | Other emperors of Ancient Rome |
Times for the Roman empire were becoming dark indeed. Marcus Aurelius was the last of the "five good emperors" and was sadly succeeded by his unworthy son Commodus. Commodus is chiefly remembered for his great love for gladiatorial combat in which he himself often partook. He delighted in causing bloodshed himself and loved to be called "The Roman Hercules". He is said to have entered the arena more than 700 times and fought against wild beasts or opponents who were clearly given few means to fight back. Unsurprisingly he had little interest for the well being of his subjects.
By now the empire was becoming increasingly weak: partly because of the decrease in population and partly because of the remaining population's love for wealth. A halt in the growth of the empire had brought an end to the influx of slaves and wealth whilst the existing wealth was being spent to purchase luxury goods from the east. This had great implications from an economic point of view as the cost of labour was increasing whilst land and wealth was held by a small elite. (More on this subject can be read in the pages written about the economy of the Roman empire.)
Pertinax followed Commodus as emperor. He intended to bring about many useful reforms but unfortunately for him the Praetorian guard had other ideas in mind and they actually put the empire up for auction to the highest bidder. A period of confusion followed and different generals put a claim to the throne. In the end it was Septimius Severus who won rule of the empire whilst the highest bidder was slain.
Lucius Septimius Severus (193-211) disbanded the old Praetorian guard and had them replaced by a guard numbering 50,000 men, made of many nationalities. With this act much power moved into foreign hands. So long as you had these soldiers on your side you could do pretty much as you chose. Septimius Severus spent much of his reign on campaign fending off the barbarians from the empire's frontiers.
A triumphal arch was erected for Septimius Severus in the forum during the year 203AD to celebrate the first ten years of his reign. This arch is one of the most beautiful and best preserved monuments in the forum.
Septimius Severus was followed by his own son Caracalla who is best remembered for having allowed citizenship to all freeborn persons throughout the empire. The main reason for this was that this allowed him to extend taxes and increase state income. He is also remembered for the imposing public baths he built in Rome. An interesting anecdote about Caracalla is that he began his rule of the empire together with his brother Geta. Having had Geta murdered he also removed his name from the inscription on the arch in the forum dedicated to his father Septimius Severus. The holes in the arch where Geta's name was inscribed are still visible.
The following 90 years from 180 AD to 270 AD were the worst in the history of the Roman Empire as the military chose one man after another to rule according to their own personal interest and gains. At one time the empire was ruled by thirty generals known as the "Thirty Tyrants", each of whom claimed the right to rule. Emperors who looked like they might prove to be good and of common benefit to the people of Rome were quickly murdered. This sorry state of affairs meant that rule was extremely weak whilst the barbarians became increasingly strong particularly the Germanic tribes of the north on the Rhine and Danube. The Persian empire to the east was also becoming very powerful.
Fortunately there was a short spell where a further five good emperors ruled in succession until the year 284 AD. Aurelian was one of these and is particularly remembered for the extensive walls he built around the city of Rome which are still very prominent today. He captured and overran the wealthy city of Palmyra in the Syrian desert. Palmyra had been ruled by a beautiful and wise queen called Zenobia who through her husband had won many victories against the Persians. This was clearly to the advantage of Rome. With the death of her husband the Romans became worried that Zenobia planned to build an empire to rival that of Rome and so it was that they decided for Palmyra to be eliminated. Aurelius had Zenobia sumptuously dressed for his triumphal march, after which he gave her a luxurious villa to live in with her children not far from Rome.
By this time the city of Rome had become the most wonderful city in the world. The vast riches which had converged into Rome could be seen in the sumptuous and monumental buildings which successive emperors had built.
These five emperors were followed by emperor Diocletian (284-305AD). Diocletian promoted so many reforms that the empire was fundamentally different by the end of his reign. Amongst the most important of his reforms was the division of the huge Roman empire into four parts each of which would be easier to defend through a local commander.
In order to have stability it had become essential to protect the life of the emperor and so Diocletian drew up a new system of government whereby two emperors called "Augusti" would have two commanders under them called "Caesars". If one emperor were to die the Caesar under him would be promoted. The idea was that it would be extremely difficult to murder all four persons across the empire in order to take over power. Unfortunately the weakness of this new system was that it was extremely expensive to run as the courts and bureaucrats were at least duplicated if not quadrupled and in so doing taxes had to be increased further. Meanwhile the economic difficulties of the empire continued.
One can see that the great Augustus, some 300 years earlier, had lived a life of relative simplicity amongst his fellow people while Diocletian and his peers loved to walk in utmost luxury and be treated like gods on earth, setting themselves above the common folk.
It is not surprising that it was not long before peasant revolts and rebellions began to make themselves felt throughout the empire. In spite of Diocletian's own will, he was pushed by one of his Caesars, Galerian, to take action against the Christians which as in the time of Domitian meant horrible martyrdom for them as well as confiscation of their wealth and destruction of their meeting places. This violent persecution lasted a full seven years.
Whilst all this was happening, Diocletian and the other Augustus - Maximian - decided to retire to a more pleasant life and it is said that when Maximian suggested taking power again Diocletian retorted that nothing could be more pleasurable than his vegetable garden. The two Caesars under Diocletian and Maximian had in the mean time become Augusti. Their names were Galerian (who had persecuted the Christians) and Constantius.
Read more about Christian persecution in the Roman Empire
Other than the heavy costs of all the bureaucracy and courts, Diocletian's new system of rule seemed to be working well until Constantius died, leaving Galerian to rule alone. As in the dreadful past, the military stepped in and pronounced their own general Constantine to be emperor. A rival claimant to the throne was a general called Maxentius and it was several years before a clear emperor emerged. Fortunately the emperor who did emerge, Constantine the Great, was inspired and up to the job.
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Leaders, Caesars and Emperors of Ancient Rome in chronological order: | ancient roman kings | tarquin | marius | sulla | rome julius caesar | augustus |The 12 Caesars | Emperor Tiberius | caligula | Emperor Claudius | Emperor Nero | Emperor Vespasian | Rome's Five Good Emperors | Hadrian | Roman Emperor Trajan | Emperor Constantine | Emperor Justinian | Other emperors of Ancient Rome |
You might also have a look at what it was to be emperor or "imperator". A list of roman emperors. A general look at famous romans such as scaevola "the left handed".
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"Ancient Rome Emperors" was written by Giovanni Milani-Santarpia for www.mariamilani.com - Rome apartments