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Important within Roman religion was the concept of family spirits known as the "Lares". The Romans had a strong belief in the spirits of the dead or divine beings called Genii; particularly those of their own ancestors which generally hung around the household. These spirits were called Lares (Lar familiaris). Similar sprits called Manes were believed to protect the house and family belongings, including their fields and the Penates who protected family provisions (called penus). These spirits were either direct ancestors of the family or spirits of the land which preexisted the founding of the city.
These spirits were represented by wax or metal statuettes which were kept together, standing or hung in a recess of a wall at home, rather like a small family shrine. Together with these it was quite possible, particularly in Patrician circles which had "ius imaginam" (right to images), to keep wax masks in wooden moulds which had the vague resemblance of the deceased ancestors. These would be used to bring the ancestors to "life" during funeral processions.
Each morning the head of the family or a suitably instructed slave would perform a strict series of rituals in order to keep the family spirits happy. This routine was carefully followed rather like we might routinely brush our teeth each morning.
Similarly the Lars Compitales were spirits linked to the urban landscape and were remembered each year during the Ludi Compitales or Compitalia. There were two primary temples to these divine beings in Rome called the "aedes larum". One of these was next to the Mugonia gate and the other in the Forum near the ancient Romanula gate.
Its real importance to the community was that it created a strong tie to ones' own family as well as underlining the family head's importance. In fact as head of the family he had absolute property over family members and all that was within the house and his orders were not only his own but given in name of the family spirits also.
As silly as this might seem family spirits were actually a corner stone of Roman religion, military and civil life. In fact Roman society since its earliest times had been structured according to family tribes or clans each of which had military as well as civil obligations. We can quickly see how an absolute devotion to one's own family and family spirits translated directly to a complete (military) devotion to the state.
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ancient roman religion: The Origins of Religion in Ancient Rome | Mysticism and Signs in Ancient Rome | Family Spirits - Lares | Religious Orders of Ancient Rome | vestal virgins | Religious Rites | Rituale Romanum | The Sacred and Votive Feasts of Rome | marriage in ancient rome | Ancient Roman Marriage | Ancient Roman Weddings | Funerals in Ancient Rome | Sacrifices in Ancient Rome |
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"Family Spirits - Lares" was written by Giovanni Milani-Santarpia for www.mariamilani.com - Rome apartments